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National Social Marketing Centre

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Conduct exchange analysis

What is it?

Assessing what rewards, benefits, costs and barriers are associated with the desired and problem behaviours. More >

Why do this?

It is important to know what the target audience perceives it is gaining and giving up if it adopts a desired behaviour. More >

By identifying the perceived costs and benefits of both positive and negative behaviours, social marketers can aim to change the cost-benefit relationship. This makes positive behaviours attractive and negative behaviours unattractive. Figure

Understanding what the audience would perceive as rewards for behavioural change is vital as these can be developed into incentives. More >

How might you do this?

It is important to continue to focus on both positive and negative behaviours.

For example:

  • Draw on the experience of your team and use workshops to discuss the costs and benefits of both negative and positive behaviours. More >
  • Assess the cost-benefit analysis, and also the rewards/incentives and barriers, from the perspective of the target audience.
  • Use role play exercises to help generate insights.
  • Use information collected during scoping to gain wider understanding.

Questions built around the following four key considerations could form a basis for your consideration and discussion:

  • Cost – Benefit Analysis: perception of the target audience. More >
  • Incentives/Rewards and Barriers Analysis: the current situation. More >
  • Understanding how people have managed to successfully change previous behaviour and what supported this. What worked for them, and why? More >
  • Proposed action plan. More >


  • Test your conclusions about costs, benefits, rewards and barriers by validating the outcomes of the exercise against your research data and expert opinion.
  • When deciding on your plans for increasing rewards, ensure that these are of value to the target audience/s.
  • Consider how other programmes comparable to your own have worked.


  • Cost-benefit analysis for both the problem and desired behaviours.
  • An Incentives/Rewards and Barriers Analysis for the current situation.
  • A plan for developing, sustaining or removing rewards or barriers in order to influence behaviour.

Intended Outcome

  • Appreciating the costs and benefits of both the desired and problem behaviours from the target audience’s perspective.
  • Understanding the role of rewards and barriers related to the specific desired behavioural change.
  • Appreciating how rewards and/or barriers can be included as an element of the intervention in order to change the cost/benefit relationship and consequently behaviour.

Latest News & Events

30 March 2016

The NSMC Level 4 Social Marketing Award Course

We are currently planning the date of our next Level 4 Social Marketing Award. Keep on eye on our website for details of this course, or alternatively contact us directly and we will then let you know when the date has been organised.

The course is the only introduction to social marketing course accredited by the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) and has been created from The NSMC's nine years' experience of delivering social marketing training courses with input from the accreditation unit at the CIM.

Read more


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